Knowledge Mapping and Management

Genesis of the KM2 concepts


Originally, I encountered recurrent questions encountered during my personal and professional career , in various fields (electronics, microelectronics, nanoelectronics, mechanics, aeronautics, legal and administrative, normative …):

  • What should I learn that I do not know ?
    • This question always arises, by nature, because the interest of bringing in an outside expert is a different view, with a different culture. But it is also necessary to appropriate the local culture with multiple ramifications technical, administrative, financial, etc!
  • How to optimize the interviews with my interlocutors?
  • How to optimize meetings, telephone interviews, etc. ?

I have given a lot of thought to these subjects, with my experience as an engineer, an artificial intelligence specialist, lobbyist, a computer specialist and a specialist in programming environments and compilers, cognitive ergonomics … to arrive at a unique synthesis which is the method and tools KM2. Each day, KM2 saves to me between 15minutes and 2 hours of work, and I once decided to share it.

Distinguishing Knowledge and Cognizance


It is absolutely essential to distinguish knowledge as stored in computers or books from knowledge and competencies that are stored in human brains :

  • Knowledge : Knowledge and information are stored in books and computers. Knowledge is  transmissible through space and time, without human intervention, by telephone lines, optical or electromagneic waves. Knowledge is built from data (strings and numbers) and information (aggregation of data).


  • Cognizance  : Cognizance  is stored in the brain. Cognizance is specific to the individual , to his understanding of the world, according to the knowledge and cognizances that have been transmitted to him. If we find a medium and a notation system for cognizances, so that we can store it, then we call it knowledge.

for your information,  ‘cognizance’ is an old english term defined here

The Paradox of Accelerating Intelligence

We are faced with a paradox and a physical incompatibility: we want to accelerate the management of the cognizance that is in the brain of individuals, whereas the performing tool about knowledge, the computer, works in another universe linked to data and their transformation. Although we hope that there is a simple and acurate bijection between cognizance and knowledge, this is definitely not true : many topics of human culture cannot be simply stored as data and knowledge, or we still dont know which formal system is the most appropriate and efficient.

That is why we have undertaken more sophisticated and fundamental studies on ways and means of transferring cognizance to knowledge.

  • There is no “little knowledge” and “great knowledge” : there is a continuity of knowledge that comes together to form ever more extensive systems of knowledge, the details of which must remain accessible.
  • The knowledge management system must manage the variety of knowledge representations and knowledge sources. In particular :
    • Processes that lead to knowledge must be managed as forms of knowledge.
    • The organization of the knowledge of a subject is also a knowledge.
    • If cognizance can be noted in an appropriate language, then processing of the knowledge can be (partially) automated.
    • Cognizance notation is a key point in the performance of knowledge management.

The KM2 method stems from both these new concepts and especially new tools to use all their power.

What previous approaches?

KM2 uses so-called mind-mapping software. “Mind-mapping” software is software for drawing trees and interactive graphs. Mind mapping is an approach strictly included in the KM2 method.

The KM2 Approach The mind-mapping approach:
  • The approach is systemic in the search for performance for the company and to develop systems automation tasks.
  • KM2 is a systematic and historical study on systems of notations and representations of cognizance,
  • KM2 is based on mathematical knowledge of the theory of graphs and computer implementations.
  • Computer science and tools are a key point of the KM2 method.
  • Hyperlinks and structured graphical representations
  • Diagrams with which one can calculate .
  • The drawings are only the first stage of the KM2 method: some drawings are generated automatically, and documents (texts, programs) can be automatically generated from these drawings.
  • A reflection on learning and ideation , with a view to memorization and simplification
  • Purely graphical schemes,
  • Drawings are done manually. Computer is used for convenience.
  • Drawings are an end in itself

KM2 is also based on the theory of graphs, representation of knowledge by frames, encyclopaedia structures, programming environments, hyperlinks, cognitive ergonomics, etc.

Why KM2?

Several ideas converged for this denomination:

  1. KM2: Knowledge Mapping and Management
  2. KM2 is the first in the world 2nd generation of Knowledge Management System : it allows not only to store data, but also to use it to generate new documents. Think of a tool which will not only tell you in which files the information is (so you are left to read all documents to find the relevant information – this is 1st generation KM) , but will also read all documents and condense all the paragraphs you need into a single and much shorter document.
  3. KM2 is at least a thousand times better (K ​​= 1000) than the Mind Mapping (M2), hence KM2
  4. The KM2 notation pages are endless in both directions: one can hope to take not miles of notes but square kilometers (km²)!
    • for example an Xmind page can cover the equivalent of 2500 A4 pages (150 m²)!

See as well :